Mon. November 21, 2016
Operated out of DUMBO Brooklyn, by the Association of Independent Colleges of Art & Design (AICAD), the New York Studio Residency Program (NYSRP) offers a semester-long program for selected art students across the United States. Given their own studio space and the opportunity for intensive engagement with artists and colleagues, participating students are given an exceptional introduction to the New York art world.
This year, senior Studio Art undergraduate Gabrielle Daubourg joined twelve other students from across the U.S. and Canada in New York to embark on the residency. A change of scenery is nothing new for Daubourg. Originally from France, born and raised in Paris, she moved to Texas when she was sixteen years old. At The University of Texas at Austin, she studied philosophy before transferring to Studio Art in order to work in film. When describing the program, Daubourg writes, “The academic structure of the program is very laissez-faire and allows each students to have time to explore the city, go to museums, exhibits and work in our studios. No micro managing.” The critical seminars that take place from Monday through Thursday involve discussion of assigned texts to current events. “These discussions have been highly influential,” writes Daubourg. “especially as a practicing video maker, in this cultural climate, which is purely mediated through consumption and image-based relationships.”
Writing with Daubourg over email during mid-terms, we learned that Magdalena Sawon of Postmasters Gallery came to the studios as a guest critic. Sawon is known for cultivating talent in new and emerging artists working in sculpture and painting to new media. Among twelve students, she is the only one that works in video; most others work in sculpture, painting, screen printing and other mediums. All of the object-making makes for a dynamic exchange of voices and critical approaches, especially during midterm critiques. “As I primarily work in video, my shooting occurred after the midterm, so the majority of what I had to show was comprised of writings,” writes Daubourg. “I presented some previous works in order to show the visual strategies I intended on applying to the upcoming project. Otherwise it was a surprisingly polite and safe critique, especially considering the student’s overall sense of anxiety prior to the event, which only served to disappoint my masochistic tendencies.”
The individual studio spaces given to each student artist are a boon to their production and a unique opportunity to expand upon projects over the course of the semester. When discussing her studio space as a video artist, Daubourg responded, “My studio space looks more like an office. It’s clean, orderly and meticulous; a failed, conscious mise-en-scène to attempt to calm my neurosis.” Remarking on the comparison to other students’ studios, “The space lacks the liveliness and colors of the painter’s studios and as another student put it, ‘it’s sad, sterile and lacks warmth.’ The next day I bought a candle.”
Assuming that Daubourg employed the same crackling wit in her work, we asked her what some of her current projects entailed. “At the moment the process of aging and the attempt to preserve histories through different aspects of storytelling is central to my relationships with current subjects,” writes Daubourg. “My work is dependent on subjects, either actors, dancers or family members. I only occupy the studio for research or editing.” The constraints she puts on herself in terms of subject matter and approach means that she spends most days outside, establishing relationships with individuals she is curious about before retiring to her studio to edit. As a means of establishing authentic relationships, Daubourg is volunteering with an organization that establishes physical and emotional support for seniors in the city. “I have started developing a closeness with certain individuals and started a process of documenting them in their space and recording our conversations.”
“Most of my current work happens prior to capturing any footage. Because of my dependency on people I spend a lot of time building the relationship before I can introduce the invasive presence of a camera into their personal space. Trust must be established, a construction that is undeniably dependent on time.”
With a month left in the semester, Daubourg reflects back on some of the most enriching parts of the residency, “just the ability to produce work in one of the greatest cities in the world is such a tremendous opportunity. There is a freedom to experiment and attention given to young artists that I want to see everywhere and bring back with me.”
Christina Bain and Colleagues Pave New Path with Technology-based Instruction Utilizing Animation and Gamification of Learning
Mon. November 21, 2016
Professor of Visual Art Studies and Art Education Christina Bain presented "Vulnerability and Vicissitudes: The Role of Scenario-Based Games in Preservice Preparation" at the International Society for Education through the Arts (INSEA) in Vienna, Austria last month.
“Experienced educators recognize that teaching is a complex, social process that is influenced by many contextual factors,” writes Bain. “The best solution to a situation—in theory—might be effective in one place but not in another. Therefore, preservice students often feel unprepared because they have limited teaching experience to draw upon. So, through my research I ask: How might preservice students learn from the wisdom and experience of seasoned teachers?” The solution, posed within Bain’s conference presentation, is K-16 collaborations. The Worst Case Scenario Art Game is one such strategy that improves preservice preparation by basing playing cards on authentic scenarios experienced by preservice and in-service teachers.
Likewise, Dr. Christina Bain, Dr. Heidi Powell and Dr. Bill Nieberding presented "Animating Your Curriculum" at the Texas Art Education Association conference in Dallas, Texas on November 18, 2016. This presentation explored how animation software was integrated into three university art education courses. On November 19, Bain presented at TAEA with Courtney Jones, Hannah Reed, Madison Weakley, Katie Gregory, Chelsea Freestone and Julia Caswell (undergraduates in Visual Art Studies, 2017) in a two-hour workshop titled "Penelope Paper Strip, Puppets, and Paper Sculpture," which explores how storytelling can set the stage for teaching basic paper sculpture techniques.
Fri. November 18, 2016
In 2010, Vanessa Paumen (B.A. in Art History, 1997; M.A. in Art History, 2002) was hired at the Groeningemuseum in Bruges as the coordinator of the Flemish Research Center for the Arts in the Burgundian Netherlands. The Groeningemuseum holds an important collection of art works from the 15th century onwards, with a focus on art related to the city of Bruges. From October 28, 2016 – February 5, 2017, the Groeningemuseum is exhibiting The Art of Law. Three Centuries of Justice Depicted, curated by Vanessa Paumen. This exhibition features twenty works of art from the collections of Musea Brugge (a conglomerate of several museum) supplemented by about a hundred other pieces on loan from galleries and museums from around the world. The exhibition is accompanied by a catalogue and a three-day conference on the art of law.
Paumen has always been fascinated by the artwork of 15th century Flanders, and especially works around depictions of law and justice. In her master’s degree thesis, Judged, Beheaded, Burned: Dieric Bouts' The Justice of Emperor Otto III within the Context of Fifteenth-Century Punitive Practices, she looked at how justice paintings functioned in 15th century Flemish society.
She answered questions by email.
Why were you drawn to the subject of depictions of law and justice in art?
I became interested in this theme because of two particularly fascinating paintings produced in 15th century Flanders: The Justice of Otto III by Dieric Bouts (ca. 1473) and The Judgment of Cambyses by Gerard David (ca. 1498). These large, impressive works were ordered by the aldermen of their respective cities (Louvain and Bruges) as exempla iustitiae paintings for the aldermen's rooms. In those days, the aldermen also functioned as judges and pronounced judgment.
It was during a study-abroad trip with Professor Jeffrey Smith and fellow graduate students that I “discovered” these two works. In addition to being fascinated by the stories that were depicted, I became interested in the ways these large works would have functioned and had an impact on their contemporary viewers – inspired by the teachings and methodology of Professor John Clarke
I wanted to know more about the aspects of the 15th century justice system that were embodied in these works and what these art works could tell us about that system and its fundamental beliefs. With the encouragement of Dr. Smith, I embarked on researching the topic for my master’s thesis. It became a fascinating voyage into civic patronage, legal history, 15th century belief systems on judgment and punishment and of course several of the major painters of the time.
Was this exhibition a natural extension of your previous work on the subject or something of a new approach?
My fascination with the subject never abated after my time at The University of Texas at Austin, although I did not actively continue research on the matter until recently for the exhibition at the Groeningemuseum in Bruges. When I was hired in 2010, I was thrilled that professionally, I had ended up at the very "home" of one of my favorite artworks: Gerard David’s Judgment of Cambyses. Being able to look at this work up close regularly rekindled the desire to delve into the subject matter again, but now from a presentational/curatorial perspective in the museum. The work—because of its very detailed depiction of a man being flayed alive—stops visitors in their tracks and leaves an impression. While most visitors will remember seeing the painting, it is because of its gruesome nature and not because of its function and context. I wanted to draw attention to that aspect of the work. David didn’t just paint something that is gruesome to look at, he left us with a work that embodies various aspects of 15th century belief system on justice and judging.
As a result, the idea of a small exhibition focusing on the theme of the Judgment of Cambyses and its popularity during the 16th and 17th centuries ensued. But very quickly as I got reacquainted with the topic, my wish list grew and I proposed a larger exhibition encompassing several works of art created in the context of justice from about 1450 to 1750, the period of the Ancien Régime.
During my initial research in graduate school, I had to consult quite a bit of a legal history in order to get around my topic. However, it was impossible to fully delve into a completely different area of study while doing a relatively small project like a thesis. So this time, for the exhibition, I wanted to make sure that we had both fields well covered. I approached a professor of law and legal history at the Institute for Legal History at the University of Ghent (Belgium) as I knew his research also focused on art works in a legal context. Professor Martyn was immediately enthusiastic to collaborate as an advisor on the exhibition project together with doctoral candidate Stefan Huygebaert, an art historian with a focus on legal iconography. A colleague specialized in museum education and outreach at the Groeningemuseum, Tine Van Poucke, co-curated the show and focused on how we would present an exhibition of this type to the museum visitor. Through this close collaboration, we complemented each other by bringing our areas of expertise together. I strongly believe in the strength and added value of interdisciplinary research and projects, and this was a great opportunity to bring two fields together. We wanted the catalogue of the exhibition to reflect this as well so the texts are written by legal as well as art historians.
Can you contextualize the exhibition for me? Can you speak to how it is situated within the mission and programming of the Groeningemuseum?
For this exhibition we started from our own rich collections in Bruges, not only the Groeningemuseum, but also the Bruggemuseum, the Brugse Vrije (one of the courthouses) and the Bruges Public Library. We then supplemented these works with relevant loans from national and international institutions and collectors. Several of the works are not from public collections so are not easily accessible. Not only are we presenting our own works in a new context, and making connections with similar art works from other collections, several of the works have not been in a museum for decades or come straight from civic buildings.
What are some of your favorite or most intriguing pieces on display during this exhibition? Why do they hold this place for you?
It is, of course, fabulous for me to see my favorite work by Gerard David surrounded by other works (paintings, drawings, stained glass, a manuscript illumination and prints) in the exhibition. The panels – which are large and very heavy— have a fixed place in the permanent collection. For this exhibition we were able to move them to a different gallery, in a different scenography and lighting, which places the panels quite literally in a new light. It has been astounding to observe that even people who are familiar with the paintings now look at the panels in a new way and notice details not seen before.
What do you see as the link between the law or the justice system and visual arts in general, and specifically as depicted within this exhibition?
The visual arts enforced the message and thus the meaning of the justice system, or rather, at that time, the belief system concerning justice and judgment. A good example of this visual codification are the legal writings of Joost De Damhouder.
De Damhouder was a Bruges lawyer who wrote several early treatises on civil and criminal law. (To be entirely correct, he plagiarized another book by a Ghent lawyer and supplemented it with narratives from his own professional experience.) Damhouder’s books, translated in several languages and published widely, became the foundation for later legal codices. The author insisted on having his books illustrated with woodcut prints. This was of such importance to him that he even delayed the publishing of his first edition in order to wait for the completion of the illustrations. Even though his texts are very thorough and descriptive, he insisted on having illustrations as they heightened and enforced the message to be conveyed even to a specialized audience. This was true for all the art works in this exhibition in which messages and iconography prevail – a picture speaks more than a thousand words, goes the saying. It must have run very true in the context of the justice system during the late middle ages.
In fact, most of the themes of the works in this exhibition originate in texts. This is especially so for the exempla iustitiae which are drawn from Biblical texts (e.g. Solomon) as well as legends and historical texts (e.g. Zaluecus, Trajan, etc.). The images were meant to have an impact on the aldermen/judges as they hung in plain sight while they performed their very important tasks.
Another link between the justice system and the visual arts exists in the depiction of Lady Justice with her nowadays well-known attributes the sword, scales and blindfold. This image is ubiquitous even in today’s society. In the exhibition, we focus on her development as iconic image symbolizing justice. We trace her development through the archangel Michael, the virtues and her iconography, which once included elements we no longer associate with justice today (like for example a stork). The blindfold, for instance, which today symbolizes impartiality originally held a negative connotation. We show the very first instance where Lady Justice is blindfolded mockingly by a fool in a 1494 woodengraving by Dürer (from Sebastian Brandt’s Ship of Fools). In this print, the fact that Justice is blinded and cannot see is a negative commentary.
What do you take from your time spent at UT? What has had the most impact on your current studies, research, and career?
My first years of graduate school at UT were immensely rewarding in many ways. As an undergraduate student, I had had many interests and pursued several majors that made me waiver from one thing to another at times. Then, in graduate school in the art history department, I realized that having a broad spectrum of interests was actually not a negative trait but beneficial to art historical research.
Many of our students hope to one day become curators. How did you achieve this goal?
I am convinced that any personal achievement is always the result of a combination of several values: belief in the type of work you do, persistence when things don’t work out as planned, flexibility and creating a network of people you admire. These combined with a little bit of luck of being in the right place at the right time, ensure that when an opportunity presents itself, you are prepared to act on it.
Becoming a curator was actually not my goal during graduate school. My goal then was to teach art history at a small liberal arts college in the United States. I wanted to instill in young adults who are about to embark into various careers a profound respect for and basic fundamental knowledge of art, heritage, culture and history.
But my path was laid out differently, and I ended up in a museum in Belgium (hence the importance of being flexible!). While prior to starting graduate school, I had worked at a contemporary art organization where I organized several small exhibitions, I had to learn most of the typical museum fundamentals during my current job. While at first I missed teaching and the contact with students, that aspect has been filled in by newly developed programs. The Flemish research centre for the arts in the Burgundian Netherlands has initiated academic programs that brings teaching into the museum(s). One is an intensive Summer Course, which brings Ph.D.-level students to Belgium for a 10-day submersion into collections, research institutions, etc., all guided by experts. Another caters to master’s-level students who come to the centre in Bruges twice over three days, where we introduce them to our collection of Flemish Primitives and the research field. In that way we hope to instill in them a profound interest in Flemish art of the 15th and 16th centuries. Through these programs and the internships that we provide, I have a new opportunity to work with students: my goal is to inspire them into turning their love for art history into their profession while they inspire me by their research endeavors.
Jeffrey Chipps Smith Lecturing at Herzog August Bibliothek Graduate Seminar, Los Angeles County Museum of Art
Fri. November 18, 2016
This past July, Professor of Art History Jeffrey Chipps Smith taught an intensive interdisciplinary graduate seminar at the Herzog August Bibliothek in Wolfenüttel, Germany, one of Germany’s foremost research institutes and libraries. His course, “Art, Reformation, and the Cult of Martin Luther,” consisted of fourteen graduate students from more than six different countries.
Smith will also be delivering the opening public lecture on 20 November for the exhibition Renaissance & Reformation: German Art in the Age of Dürer and Cranach at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Smith was asked to write the catalogue’s only essay. The major show is co-curated by the museums of Berlin, Dresden, and Munich.
Fri. November 18, 2016
Type Hike is a collaborative design project that includes 60 designers and typographers. Each has created a unique design for a park they love in celebration of the National Parks Service centennial this past August. The project is organized by David Rygiol and Design lecturer James Louis Walker.