Tue. April 5, 2016
Joan Holladay and Jeffrey Chipps Smith will present papers and John R. Clarke will moderate discussion at the Diptychs, Triptychs and Polyptychs, from the Middle Ages to Modernity, a symposium hosted by the Edith O'Donnell Institute of Art History. The symposium was co-organized by James Rodriguez (M.A. in Art History, 2007) and will take place April 23, 2016.
Mon. April 4, 2016
Archaeologists working on the Mugello Valley Archaeological Project in Italy have discovered what may be a rare sacred text in the Etruscan language that is likely to yield rich details about Etruscan worship of a god or goddess. The project is co-directed by Dr. Michael Thomas, who is also director of the Center for the Study of Ancient Italy in the Department of Art and Art History at The University of Texas at Austin. The lengthy text is inscribed on a large 6th century B.C. sandstone slab that was uncovered from an Etruscan temple. A new religious artifact discovery is rare, and most Etruscan discoveries typically have been grave and funeral objects.
“This is probably going to be a sacred text, and will be remarkable for telling us about the early belief system of a lost culture that is fundamental to western traditions,” said archaeologist Gregory Warden, Thomas’s co-director and principal investigator of the Mugello Valley Archaeological Project.
Scholars in the field predict the stele (STEE-lee), as such slabs are called, will yield a wealth of new knowledge about the lost culture of the Etruscans. The slab, weighing about 500 pounds and measuring nearly four feet tall by more than two feet wide, has at least 70 legible letters and punctuation marks, likely with never-seen-before words.
The Etruscan civilization once ruled Rome and influenced Romans on everything from religion to government to art and architecture. Considered one of the most religious people of the ancient world, Etruscan life was permeated by religion, and ruling magistrates also exercised religious authority.
The slab was discovered embedded in the foundations of a monumental temple where it had been buried for more than 2,500 years. At one time it would have been displayed as an imposing and monumental symbol of authority. Thomas supervised the removal of the stele and discovered the inscription while washing the stele in the field. He presented the discovery at the Annual Meetings of the Archaeological Institute of America in San Francisco this past January.
“The size and shape of the stone was our first clue that we had found something unique,” said Thomas. “The moment we recognized letters on the stone, we knew we had made a profound discovery.”
The Mugello Valley dig, specifically the Poggio Colla site, is northeast of Florence, Italy. The slab would have been connected to the early sacred life of the sanctuary there. Thomas’ research focuses on the architecture at the site.
“Though we have several phases of construction, the earliest structure at the site was a simple timber-framed oval hut. This would have been followed by a large temple set on a stone podium with large stone column bases of the Tuscan Doric type,” said Thomas. “It was within that stone podium that we discovered the stele.”
Conservation and study of the stele, with full photogrammetry and laser scanning to document all aspects of the conservation process and all details of the inscribed surfaces, is underway in the next few months at the conservation laboratories of the Tuscan Archaeological Superintendency in Florence by experts from the architecture department of the University of Florence. The sandstone, likely from a local source, is heavily abraded and chipped, with one side reddened, possibly from undergoing burning in antiquity. Cleaning will allow scholars to read the inscription. The text will be studied and published by a noted expert on the Etruscan language, Rex Wallace, Professor of Classics at the University of Massachusetts Amherst.
In two decades of digging, Mugello Valley Archaeological Project has unearthed objects about Etruscan worship, beliefs, gifts to divinities and discoveries related to the daily lives of elites and non-elites, including workshops, kilns, pottery and homes. This wealth of material helps document the ritual activity from the 7th century to the 2nd century B.C., including gold jewelry, coins, the earliest scene of childbirth in western European art and, in the past two seasons, four 6th-century bronze statuettes.
Etruscan scholar Jean MacIntosh Turfa with the University of Pennsylvania Museum, Philadelphia, said the stele discovery will advance knowledge of Etruscan history, literacy and religious practices.
“Inscriptions of more than a few words on permanent materials are rare for the Etruscans, who tended to use perishable media like linen cloth books or wax tablets,” Turfa said. “This stone stele is evidence of a permanent religious cult with monumental dedications, at least as early as the Late Archaic Period, from about 525 to 480 B.C. Its re-use in the foundations of a slightly later sanctuary structure points to deep changes in the town and its social structure.”
It would be a rare discovery to identify the Etruscan god or goddess to which the sanctuary was dedicated.
“Apart from the famous seaside shrine at Pyrgi, with its inscribed gold plaques, very few Etruscan sanctuaries can be so conclusively identified,” Turfa said. “A study of the names of the dedicants will yield rich data on a powerful society where the nobility, commoners and even freed slaves could offer public vows and gifts.”
Etruscans were a highly cultured people, but very little of their writing has been preserved, mostly just short funerary inscriptions with names and titles, said archaeologist Ingrid Edlund-Berry, a professor emerita at The University of Texas at Austin and consulting scholar at Poggio Colla.
“So any text, especially a longer one, is an exciting addition to our knowledge,” said Edlund-Berry, an expert in Etruscan civilization. “It is very interesting that the stele was found within the walls of the buildings at the site, thus suggesting that it was re-used, and that it represents an early phase at the site.”
The Poggio Colla site is in northern Etruria. Most inscriptions have come from centers further south, Edlund-Berry said.
Thomas has worked at the site since the first season in 1995. The project’s field school has trained numerous UT undergrads and graduate students over the last two decades. Besides the Center for the Study of Ancient Italy at The University of Texas at Austin, other collaborating institutions at Mugello Valley Archaeological Project include Franklin and Marshall College, the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology, The Open University (UK), Franklin University Switzerland and Southern Methodist University in Dallas.
Thu. March 31, 2016
Art History senior Katherine Jessen received an Undergraduate Research Fellowship for her paper "Assessing the Impact of the Crystal Bridges Museum of Art in Bentonville, Arkansas." The Undergraduate Research Fellowship provides financial support for scholarly research projects conducted by undergraduate students. Jessen's paper abstract follows:
This thesis surveys the multitude of ways that the new Crystal Bridges Museum of American art has affected the city of Bentonville, Arkansas and the surrounding region. The museum opened November 11, 2011 and was funded and envisioned by Walmart heiress, Alice Walton. Calculating the museum’s economic footprint, measuring increases in tourism, and looking at new development in the area offers a holistic view of how Crystal Bridges has altered the local economy. A thorough investigation of the museum’s educational initiatives and public programming demonstrates the museum’s effects on the community. Finally, I will describe how museum professionals and the media have perceived the museum and what the future looks like for Crystal Bridges and the area community.
Jessen will present her thesis during the Annual Undergraduate Art History Symposium on Friday, April 22, 2016.
Thu. March 31, 2016
Second year M.F.A. candidates in Studio Art traveled to New York City earlier this semester. However, this wasn’t a vacation weekend: the seven students visited over 25 galleries and six museums as a group (with time built into their schedule for additional individual visits to spaces of their choice).
“We got to see a lot of great art, courtesy of a tour with Gregory Volk,” says Laura Brown. “My favorite were the shows at Postmasters Gallery, which included a group show of small sculptures, all displayed on a huge, custom-made table, and another show of collaged embroideries by Sally Smart. We got to meet her and hear all about her process and practice from research to development to execution. As a person who really engages with process myself, that was interesting to hear about—especially since her materials and medium are not the most common or conventional.”
Gregory Volk, art critic, freelance curator and 2015 Viewpoint speaker, led the group on a day-long gallery tour that he organized. Volk even invited some of the exhibiting artists to come and talk to the students about their work.
“It was lovely to see Gregory again and to hear directly from gallerists and artists about the work we looked at,” Brown says, “It was great to hear Amy Sillman talk about her work and staying engaged with it after so many years of making and many life transitions. When I think about where I want to be in twenty years, I hope to have a practice with some longevity, and I know that doesn't just happen. It takes work and commitment and the ability to stay open and responsive to the world around you. I found it encouraging to meet artists at various stages of their careers and hear their experiences. Everyone has such a different story to tell.”
The trip is funded by an Emily Hall Tremaine Foundation grant as part of their Marketplace Empowerment for Artists program which works to provide professional artists with the skills necessary to navigate the contemporary art market. The students also met Darren Walker, president of the Ford Foundation, 2015 UT Austin commencement speaker and College of Fine Arts Advisory Council member.
“Darren Walker really is the energetic, enthusiastic, magical person we were told he would be,” Brown says. “We all researched the history of the Ford Foundation, Mr. Walker's biography, and the changes he has brought to the organization before our trip. We had such a short time with him, but I could have sat there chatting with him for hours.”
While the four days of travel and a packed itinerary make a long weekend, the visit familiarizes the students to New York and allows them to meet artists, gallerists, and curators before returning to the quiet of their studios.
“My friends in New York simply seem over saturated. But that's not to say that one is better than the other,” Miller says. “For me it's a matter of temperament. I want to be able to focus on what's going on in my studio.”
Brown adds, “I grew up in rural places, so I am partial to smaller cities and communities. For its size, Austin has a good mix of galleries, studios, and active artists. I think that in smaller communities, there is a closer connection between artists and art appreciators. It's more accessible and human.”